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Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Diagnosis and Management Based on Current Molecular Genetics Approach

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Elumalai Suguna*, Rahman Farhana, Elangovan Kanimozhi, Pindigiri Sai Kumar, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel and Chitralekha Sai Kumar   Pages 199 - 207 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background & Objective: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of ≥20% myeloid premature blast cells in the bone marrow and they are most often found in the peripheral blood. AML is generally classified based on either French-American-British (FAB) or World Health Organization (WHO) systems. For better clinical management, cytogenetic finding in AML is necessary and in patients with normal karyotypes - molecular, epigenetic and proteomic biomarkers are very important in choosing which drugs to prescribe. Mutations of certain genes like NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, RUNX1 and MLL play a crucial role in the risk management and clinical stratification of AML patients. We reviewed the literature for the current trends of clinical practice based on laboratory based diagnostic tests in AML.

Outcome and Result: We listed in AML chromosomal aberrations (translocations, fusions or RUNX1, CBFB, MYHI1, MLL, EVI1, PML-RARA), genes and mutations (NPM1, FLT3, CEPBA, MLL) epigenetic factors (DNMT34, TET2) and proteomic biomarkers (PTP, PTK, PIP) and analysed how on the basis of these factors medical risk was stratified and accordingly managed.

Conclusion: AML is genetically and functionally a heterogenous malignant disease. In the western world, leukemia is one of the most common among all cancers. India is ranked 3rd in cancer disease after United States of America and China. Cytogenetic analysis, molecular/proteomic biomarkers and epigenetic factors assist in determining the management strategies and prognosis of the disease. A number of targeted drugs in pre-clinical and clinical trials based on molecular factors and epigenetic mechanisms have been reported to have promising results in AML patients.

Keywords:

Acute myeloid leukemia, cytogenetics, gene mutation, molecular biomarkers, NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA.

Affiliation:

Genomic Research Center, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, Central for Medical Genetics, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, Central for Medical Genetics, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, Central for Medical Genetics, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu

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