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Updated Understanding of Platelets in Thrombosis and Hemostasis: The Roles of Integrin PSI Domains and their Potential as Therapeutic Targets

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Daniel T. MacKeigan, Tiffany Ni, Chuanbin Shen, Tyler W. Stratton, Wenjing Ma, Guangheng Zhu, Preeti Bhoria and Heyu Ni*   Pages 260 - 273 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Platelets are small blood cells known primarily for their ability to adhere and aggregate at injured vessels to arrest bleeding. However, when triggered under pathological conditions, the same adaptive mechanism of platelet adhesion and aggregation may cause thrombosis, a primary cause of heart attack and stroke. Over recent decades, research has made considerable progress in uncovering the intricate and dynamic interactions that regulate these processes. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors expressed on all metazoan cells that facilitate cell adhesion, movement, and signaling, to drive biological and pathological processes such as thrombosis and hemostasis. Recently, our group discovered that the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domains of the integrin β subunits exert endogenous thiol isomerase activity derived from their two highly conserved CXXC active site motifs. Given the importance of redox reactions in integrin activation and its location in the knee region, this PSI domain activity may be critically involved in facilitating the interconversions between integrin conformations. Our monoclonal antibodies against the β3 PSI domain inhibited its thiol isomerase activity and proportionally attenuated fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation. Notably, these antibodies inhibited thrombosis without significantly impairing hemostasis or causing platelet clearance. In this review, we will update mechanisms of thrombosis and hemostasis, including platelet versatilities and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, discuss critical contributions of the newly discovered PSI domain thiol isomerase activity, and its potential as a novel target for anti-thrombotic therapies and beyond.

Keywords:

Thrombosis and hemostasis, platelets, integrins, immune thrombocytopenia, thiol isomerase activity, cardiovascular disease, therapies.

Affiliation:

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S

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